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06. Safe fragrances
05. DNA mass information store
04. Garden mounds for permaculture
03. Silver as high-tech material
02. Micro needle transmits medications and light
01. Electricity storage in gravity systems

12. An eye on space hazards
11. Water purification through freezing
10. Solar shingles
09. Trinary code
08. Vegetation-based battery materials
07. Indoor position location
06. The interface industry
05. Hypersonic aircraft
04. Re-usable glass packaging
03. Vein patterns as personal ID
02. Magnet making bacteria
01. Ultra-light solids

12. Ultrasound in water
11. Projected touchscreen
10. Electric airplane
08. Glass hard disc
04. Nuclear hazard
03. Clearing “sewer soap”
02. Water harvesting
01. Tea bag size personal water filter

12. Human powered water transport
11. The Technium
08. Bio-remediation of oil spills
07. Cleaner coal
05. Oil spill remediation
04. Solar towers
03. Brain-computer
02. Biodiesel producing bacteria
01. Hydrogen producing bacteria

12. Levitating living organisms
11. A new blue
10. Polymer magnets
09. Electric vehicle batteries
08. Implantable cancer monitors
07. Algal biofuel
06. Geo-Thermal Heat Pump
05. Battery powered roadster
04. Fenestration
03. Text to voice
02. Implantable ID chips
01. Air cleansing building material

12. ebooks
11. Energy Harvesting
10. Private space-flights
09. Virus identification chip
08. Bio-fuels
07. Electronic financial trading
06. Bio-remediation
05. New tech agriculture
04. Manufactured Hotels
03. Magnetic Induction
02. Genetic Vaults
01. Solid-state lighting

12 Bacteria in agriculture and industry
11. Blue revolution
10. Electronic nose
09. Nuclear sarcophagus
08. Shape shifting technology
07. Thought activated technology
06. Green is cool - make me look green
05. Electronic 'drugs'
04. Super-canals and super-ships
03. Environmentally friendly technology: greens versus grays
02. Agriculture: food,fiber and fuel
01. FPGA floating-point performance surpasses microprocessor

08. Energy sources for electricity compete
07. Universal interface (UI)
06. Magnetic levitation
05. Light pipes
04. Storage of electricity
03. Automotive engines
02. Molecular assembly
01. Introducing Technoscan Newsbriefs

Vol. 1, No. 4. September 15, 2006
ISSN 1932-3018

Storage of electricity
Positioning this technology in the
Functionality Grid
Reformatted from: Van Wyk, Rias J: Technology - A Unifying Code, 2004, SMG, Cape Town, p.34. Based on: Ropohl, Gunter: Eine Systemtheorie der Technik, 1979, Carl Hanser Verlag, Munich and Vienna, p.178.
This Newsbrief focuses on the large scale storage of electricity. In terms of the Atlas of Technological Megatrends it deals with progress in the functionality of energy storing.
A great and growing need exists to store energy once it has been converted to electricity. An increasing share of energy is transmitted as electricity. In electricity generation an increasing share comes from renewable sources, frequently with intermittent supply patterns such as in wind and solar. Even in conventional electricity generation, progress in storage could save the cost of standby generating capacity.
Electricity stores can be divided into two classes, each with a number of subcategories:
  • Conversion into mechanical or chemical systems: (i) pumped hydropower, (ii) fly-wheels, (iii) compressed air (iv) batteries, and (v) hydrogen,
  • Direct storing of electricity: (i) superconducting coils, (ii) capacitors (for small-scale applications).
The rate of technological advance in Class 1 is slow. Pumped hydro-power is widely used but advancing slowly. Fly-wheels, are advancing experimentally but are not in wide-spread practical use. Compressed air is in limited practical use, but is attracting increased attention. Chemical batteries are improving at about 5 to 7 per cent per year.
The rate of progress in Class 2 is high, but has not yet resulted in wide-spread practical application. Super conducting coils show promise and are benefiting from progress in superconductive materials.
Technology executives and investment professionals should regard energy storing as an area of vast unfilled needs. Watch for developments using compressed air and superconducting coils.

© Rias J. van Wyk, 2013. Editor.